Friday the 13th, Evil Entities



According to folklorists, there is no written evidence for a "Friday the 13th" superstition before the 19th century.[1][2][3] The earliest known documented reference in English occurs in Henry Sutherland Edwards' 1869 biography of Gioachino Rossini, who died on a Friday 13th.
He [Rossini] was surrounded to the last by admiring friends; and if it be true that, like so many Italians, he regarded Fridays as an unlucky day and thirteen as an unlucky number, it is remarkable that one Friday 13th of November he died.[4]
Several theories have been proposed about the origin of the Friday the 13th superstition.
One theory states that it is a modern amalgamation of two older superstitions: that thirteenis an unlucky number and that Friday is an unlucky day.
  • In numerology, the number twelve is considered the number of divine organizational arrangement or chronological completeness, as reflected in the twelve months of the year, twelve hours of the clock day, twelve gods of Olympus, twelve tribes of Israel,twelve Apostles of Jesusthe 12 successors of Muhammad in Shia Islam, twelve signs of the Zodiac, etc., whereas the number thirteen was considered irregular, transgressing this completeness. There is also a superstition, thought by some to derive from the Last Supper or a Norse myth, that having thirteen people seated at a table results in the death of one of the diners.
  • Friday has been considered an unlucky day at least since the 14th century's The Canterbury Tales,[5] and many other professions have regarded Friday as an unlucky day to undertake journeys or begin new projects.
  • Christians commemorate the crucifixion of Jesus on the Friday before Easter, adding additional unpopularity to the weekday.
  • One author, noting that references are all but nonexistent before 1907 but frequently seen thereafter, has argued that its popularity derives from the publication that year of Thomas W. Lawson's popular novel Friday, the Thirteenth,[6] in which an unscrupulousbroker takes advantage of the superstition to create a Wall Street panic on a Friday the 13th.[1]
  • Records of the superstition are rarely found before the 20th century, when it became extremely common. The connection between the Friday the 13th superstition and the Knights Templar was popularized in Dan Brown's 2003 novel The Da Vinci Code and in John J. Robinson's 1989 work Born in Blood: The Lost Secrets of Freemasonry. On Friday, 13 October 1307, hundreds of the Knights Templar were arrested in France, an action apparently motivated financially and undertaken by the efficient royal bureaucracy to increase the prestige of the crown. Philip IV was the force behind this ruthless move, but it has also tarnished the historical reputation of Clement V. From the very day of Clement V's coronation, the king falsely charged the Templars with heresy, immorality and abuses, and the scruples of the Pope were compromised by a growing sense that the burgeoning French State might not wait for the Church, but would proceed independently.[7] However, experts agree that this is a relatively recent correlation, and most likely a modern-day invention

In Spanish-speaking countries, instead of Friday, Tuesday the 13th (martes trece) is considered a day of bad luck.[13] The Greeks also consider Tuesday (and especially the 13th) an unlucky day. Tuesday is considered dominated by the influence of Ares, the god of war. A connection can be seen in the etymology of the name in some European languages (Mardi in French or martes in Spanish). The fall of Constantinople to the Fourth Crusade occurred on Tuesday, April 13, 1204 and the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans happened on Tuesday, May 29, 1453, events that strengthen the superstition about Tuesday. In addition, in Greek the name of the day is Triti(Τρίτη) meaning literally the third (day of the week), adding weight to the superstition, since bad luck is said to "come in threes"

The following months have a Friday the 13th:
MonthYearsDominical
letter
January1978, 1984, 1989, 1995, 2006, 2012, 2017, 2023A, AG
February1976, 1981, 1987, 1998, 2004, 2009, 2015, 2026D, DC
March1981, 1987, 1992, 1998, 2009, 2015, 2020, 2026D, ED
April1979, 1984, 1990, 2001, 2007, 2012, 2018, 2029G, AG
May1977, 1983, 1988, 1994, 2005, 2011, 2016, 2022B, CB
June1975, 1980, 1986, 1997, 2003, 2008, 2014, 2025E, FE
July1979, 1984, 1990, 2001, 2007, 2012, 2018, 2029G, AG
August1976, 1982, 1993, 1999, 2004, 2010, 2021, 2027C, DC
September1974, 1985, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2013, 2019, 2024F, GF
October1978, 1989, 1995, 2000, 2006, 2017, 2023, 2028A, BA
November1981, 1987, 1992, 1998, 2009, 2015, 2020, 2026D, ED
December1974, 1985, 1991, 1996, 2002, 2013, 2019, 2024F, GF
This sequence given here for 2001–2028, follows a 28-year cycle from March 1, 1900 to February 28, 2100. The months with a Friday the 13th are determined by the Dominical letter (G, F, GF, etc.) of the year. Any month that starts on a Sunday contains a Friday the 13th, and there is at least one Friday the 13th in every calendar year. There can be as many as three Friday the 13ths in a single calendar year; either in February, March and November in a common year starting on Thursday (D) (such as 2009), or January, April and July in a leap year starting on Sunday (AG) (such as 2012).

The longest period that can occur without a Friday the 13th is fourteen months, either from July to September the following common year (e.g., between 2001–02, 2012–13, and 2018–19), or from August to October the following leap year (e.g., between 1999–2000 or 2027–28).

Patterns for common years:
Each Gregorian 400-year cycle contains 146,097 days (365 × 400 = 146,000 normal days, plus 97 leap days). 146,097 ÷ 7 = 20,871 weeks. Thus, each cycle contains the same pattern of days of the week (and thus the same pattern of Fridays that are on the 13th). The 13th day of the month is slightly more likely to be a Friday than any other day of the week.[20] On average, there is a Friday the 13th once every 212.35 days (compared to Thursday the 13th, which occurs only once every 213.59 days).
The distribution of the 13th day over the 4,800 months is as follows:
Day of the weekSundayMondayTuesdayWednesdayThursdayFridaySaturday
Number of occurrences687685685687684688684





So what do you think? Any Comments?